Seven Things That Affect Education Around the World

Luke Fostveldt, Alex Shum, Ian Lyttle, Di Cook


OECD PISA is the world's global metric for quality, equity and efficiency in school education assesses the workforce readiness of 15-year old students.

There are 485490 students tested, from 64 different countries. Only 162 schools in the USA are measured, but 885 are measured in Canada, and 1471 in Mexico.

[1] 485490
[1] 64
[1] 162
[1] 885
[1] 1471


Four tables of information:

  • student: Pupil performance in mathematics, reading and science is coded by five plausible values
  • school: Questionnaire completed by school principals
  • parent: Parents were asked to fill in a questionnaire
  • scoreditem: stuff

Competition web site

Details of the data, competition tracks, and entries are at

Gender and Math - Methods

  • Compute the sample-weighted mean math score for girls/boys separately for each country.
  • Calculate difference in the means (boy - girl)
  • Compute ratio boys to girls taking the test
  • Do t-test separately by country, record unadjusted p-values
  • Sort countries from biggest difference to least, biggest gender gap in favor of boys to that in favor of girls
  • Plot difference by country, colored by significance, sized by proportion

Gender and Math

plot of chunk gendermath